Education Sector Profile
Education sector is a vital in the development of the economy. The Social Pillar in the Vision 2030 singles out education and training as the vehicle that will drive Kenya into becoming a middle-income economy. The sector envisions “a globally competitive education, training, research and innovation for sustainable development”. In order to realize this, the sector undertakes “to provide, promote and coordinate quality education for sustainable development”. The sector’s overall goal is to increase access to education and training; improve quality and relevance of education; reduce inequality as well as leverage on knowledge and skills in science, technology, and innovation for global competitiveness.
The Sector Goals
- To provide access to quality education and training at all levels.
- To establish, maintain and manage professional teaching service for all public primary, secondary and tertiary institutions.
- To formulate, review and implement appropriate policies, legal and institutional frameworks for the Sector.
- To promote innovativeness and popularize research, technology and innovation in industries and learning institutions.
Key Priority Areas
The Key priority areas financed include the following;
- Teacher resource management with recruitment of 5,000 additional teachers and promotion of the existing establishment;
- Free primary Education;
- Free day secondary Education;
- University Education;
- TVET infrastructure and Research Science and Technology;
- Establishment of seven additional universities i.e Koitalel
- samoei, Bomet, Alupe,Gatundu,Tom Mboya; Kaimosi and Turkana.
Ministry of Education
The Ministry‘s overall sector objectives are to ensure equitable access, attendance, retention, attainment and achievement in education, science, research and technology by ensuring affordability of services. It also aims at mobilizing resources for sustainable and efficient delivery of relevant educational, research, technological and other educational services. The Ministry is mandated to ensure co-ordination of the provision of education and training for efficient delivery of services between government, donors, NGOs and communities.
Semi-Autonomous Government Agencies with
The following agencies help government in the delivery of education services;
- Education Standards and Quality Assurance Council
- Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development
- Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC)
- Kenya Education Management Institute (KEMI)
- Kenya Institute of Special Education
- Jomo Kenyatta Foundation
- Kenya Literature Bureau
- Centre for Mathematics, Science and Technology in Africa
- Kenya National Commission for UNESCO
- National Council for Nomadic
- National Education Board
- Technical and Vocational Education and Training Authority (TVETA)
- TVET Funding Board (TVETFB)
- TVET Curriculum Development,
- Assessment and Certification
- Council (TVET CDACC)
- Kenya National Qualifications Authority (KNQA)
- National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI):
- Kenya National Innovation Agency (KENIA):
- National Research Fund (NRF):
- Biosafety Appeals Board (BAB):
- Higher Education Loans Board (HELB):
- Commission for University Education (CUE)
- Universities Funding Board (UFB)
- Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service Board (KUCCPS)
- Universities and Constituent Colleges
- The Pan African University of Science, Technology and Innovation (PAUSTI)
- Kenya Institute of Education
- Teachers Service Commission
- Commission for Higher Education
- Kenya National Examinations Council
- Kenya Institute of Special Education
- Centre for Mathematics, Science and Technology in East Africa (CEMASTEA)
- Kenya Education Staff Institute (KESI)
The Constitution of Kenya (2010)
The Constitution addresses a number of regulatory concerns in regard to education as follows:
- The Constitution guarantees a right to education for every person as one of the socio-economic rights under Article 43.
- Article 53 provides that every child has a right to free and compulsory basic education.
- Article 53(1) (d) further provides that children are to be protected from abuse, inhuman treatment and violence.
- The State is mandated under Article 55 to take measures including affirmative action to ensure that the youth access relevant education, training and employment.
- Article 53(2) stipulates that a child‘s best interests are of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child.
- Article 54 provides persons with disabilities the right of access to educational institutions and facilities; and that such persons are integrated into the society to the extent that is compatible with their interests.
- Minority and marginalized groups are to be provided with special opportunities in educational and economic fields under Article 56(b).
- Every person (including children) has a right to equality before the law and freedom from discrimination under Article 27.
It is the a responsibility of the national government to formulate educational policies, set standards, develop curricula, oversee examinations and grant charters for universities. The national government is given mandate over universities, tertiary education and institutions and other institutions of research and higher learning, primary schools, special education, secondary schools and special education institutions. The national government is also given the responsibility of promotion of sports and sports education, libraries and cultural activities. The county governments have power over pre-primary education, village polytechnics, home craft centres and child care facilities.
The Education Act, Cap. 211
The Education Act is the main statute addressing education and mainly provides for the regulation and progressive development of the sector. Other Statutes that deal with issues on education and training include;
- Children‘s Act No. 9 of 2001
- Kenya National Examinations Council Act Cap. 225A
- The Teachers Service Commission Act Cap. 212
- Universities Act
- Council of Legal Education Act Cap. 16A
- Industrial Training Act Cap. 237
- Borstal Institutions Act, Cap. 92
- Kenya National Library Services Board Act Cap. 225
- Persons with Disabilities Act No. 14 of 2003
Characteristics of the sector
- Basic formal education starts at age six years.
- Primary school is for eight years, high school, four years and university also four years.
- Kenyan literacy rate range between 75 and 85 percent, with the female rate about 10 points lower than that for males.
- More than half of secondary schools are owned by government; 5,296 public schools compared to 2,015 private schools.
- There are enough post secondary school institutions to absorb those who complete the secondary school level.
The Kenya education system includes the following stages;
- Early Childhood Development Education (ECDE)
- Primary Education
- Secondary Education
- Tertiary Education /TIVET
- Adult Basic Education and Training(ABET)/ Non-Formal Education (NFE)
Non-Formal Education (NFE) was introduced in Kenya to address the education needs of children and some adults who are unable to attend formal schools due to various social and economic reasons. NFE is accessed at Non-Formal Schools (NFSs) and Non-Formal Education Centres (NFECs). NFSs and NFECs operate mainly with the support of governmental, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and communities. NFSs target primary school age children using the 8.4.4 curriculum whereas NFECs target school age children and youth, below 18 years and use various curricula including the Ministry of Education Non-Formal Education curriculum.
Sector Resource allocation
The Sector’s budget and resource allocation has increased from KES. 339,924 Million in 2016/17 to 349,861 million in 2017/18. The total resource requirement of the Sector for the 2017/2018 is KES 392,241Million comprising of KES 32,061 M development expenditure and KES 360,180 recurrent expenditure while the gross resource ceilings for the sector were set at KES 326,516M recurrent expenditures and KES. 23,345 M capital expenditures in the Budget Review and Outlook Paper (BROP). This translated to a gross increment of KES 9,937 B (KES 10,767B increase and KES 0.83B decrease in recurrent and development respectively) from 2016/17 Financial Year.
- Overcrowding in schools and lecture rooms;
- High pupil/teacher ratio;
- Inadequate infrastructure and equipment;
- Inequitable regional distribution of teachers;
- Lack of empowerment of managers to monitor, standards and quality in their schools;
- There is a mismatch between the skills learned in training institutions and skills demands of the industry;
- Weak mechanisms to monitor standards and quality assurance in training institutions;
- Low funding to universities and
- Lack of the secondary equivalent for Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET).
2017 KENYA ACCREDITED UNIVERSITIES
The accredited universities by The Commission for University Education (CUE) are as follows;
- University of Nairobi (UoN)
- Moi University (MU)
- Kenyatta University (KU)
- Egerton University (EU)
- Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT)
- Maseno University (Maseno)
- Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST)
- Dedan Kimathi University of Technology
- Chuka University
- Technical University of Kenya
- Technical University of Mombasa
- Pwani University
- Kisii University
- University of Eldoret
- Maasai Mara University
- Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology
- Laikipia University
- South Eastern Kenya University
- Meru University of Science and Technology
- Multimedia University of Kenya
- University of Kabianga
- Karatina University
- Kibabii University
- Rongo University
- The Co-operative University of Kenya
- Taita Taveta University
- Murang’a University of Technology
- University of Embu
- Machakos University
- Kirinyaga University
- Public University Constituent Colleges
- Garissa University College (MU)
- Alupe University College (MU)
- Kaimosi Friends University College (MMUST)
- Tom Mboya University College (Maseno)
- Turkana University College (MMUST)
Private Chartered Universities
- University of Eastern Africa, Baraton
- Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA)
- Daystar University
- Scott Christian University
- United States International University
- Africa Nazarene University
- Kenya Methodist University
- Paul’s University
- Pan Africa Christian University
- Strathmore University
- Kabarak University
- Mount Kenya University
- Africa International University
- Kenya Highlands Evangelical University
- Great Lakes University of Kisumu
- KCA University
- Adventist University of Africa
- KAG EAST University
Private University Constituent Colleges
- Hekima University College (CUEA)
- Tangaza University College (CUEA)
- Marist International University College (CUEA)
- Regina Pacis University College (CUEA)
- Uzima University College (CUEA)
Institutions with Letters of Interim Authority
- Kiriri Women’s University of Science and Technology
- Aga Khan University
- GRETSA University
- Presbyterian University of East Africa
- The East African University
- Management University of Africa
- Riara University
- Pioneer International University
- UMMA University
- International Leadership University
- Zetech University
- Lukenya University
- RAF International University
The information under the education sector is arranged as follows;